Fighting between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) has persisted since the beginning of hostilities on 15th April 2023, resulting in widespread violence across various regions in Sudan, including Khartoum, Kordofan states, Darfur states, and Blue Nile state. Despite a declared ceasefire by both SAF and RSF on 27 June, armed clashes continued, even during the recent Eid al-Adha holiday. As of 30 June, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) has reported 1,133 deaths and 11,796 injuries across the country since 15 April. The true figure is likely much beyond that. Over 2.8 million people had to flee their homes, resulting in 2.2 million internally displaced and approximately 615,000 persons seeking refuge in neighboring countries such as Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, and South Sudan. Alarming reports indicate indiscriminate attacks on civilian infrastructure, including markets and hospitals, as well as widespread looting of homes, humanitarian facilities, and critical records from public institutions such as courts and land offices. These distressing trends highlight the breakdown of the rule of law and institutions to protect the civilian population, intensifying the humanitarian crisis in Sudan. The protection of civilians remains a significant concern, with reports of escalating use of sexual and gender-based violence, targeted attacks on - or harm against - civilians based on ethnicity, grave violations of children's rights, family separations, theft, extortion, and the threat posed by unexploded ordnances. Moreover, the closure of schools and limited access to social services have increased the vulnerability of children to recruitment or association with armed groups.
The protection risks requiring immediate attention in the period covered by this analysis are:
1. Attacks on civilians and other unlawful killings and attacks on civilian infrastructure
2. Gender-based and conflict related sexual violence
3. Theft, extortion, looting, and destruction of public and personal property
4. Forced child separation compounded by children’s exposure to violence, abuse and neglect, including alleged forced recruitment and trafficking
5. Presence of mines and other explosive ordnances