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Global Protection Cluster

PROTECTION ISSUES

Over the world, armed conflict continues to be characterized by high levels of civilian deaths, injury, displacement, psychological trauma and sexual violence. Alongside such widespread protection risks, we also know that particular groups shoulder disproportionate burdens – children living through conflict for instance are at risk of being separated from their families, recruited into armed groups and denied an education.

National Protection Clusters active in 32 crisis affected countries describe sexual and gender-based violence as being amongst top concerns. 81 % describe the risks as severe or extreme. All operations describe psychological/emotional abuse or inflicted distress amongst the affected populations. 70% rate the risk of distress as severe or extreme.

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The Global Protection Cluster (GPC) regularly monitors and tracks 15 protection risks across emergencies crisis.

Severity Minor Stressed Moderate Severe Extreme N/A
Attacks on civilians and other unlawful killings, attacks on civilian infrastructures 2 3 2 13 5 2
Torture or inhuman, cruel, degrading treatment 7 4 10 3 2 1
Theft, extortion, eviction or destruction of personal property 2 3 8 12 1 1
Sexual and gender-based violence 0 0 5 17 5 0
Psychological/emotional abuse or inflicted distress 0 2 6 14 5 0
Presence of mines and other explosive ordnance 5 3 8 8 2 1
Misinformation and denial of access to information 6 9 7 3 1 1
Impediments or restrictions to freedom of movement, siege and forced displacement 2 0 5 16 3 1
Impediments and/or restrictions to access to documentation, remedies and justice 2 4 9 8 3 1
Forced recruitment, including recruitment of children in armed forces and groups 4 4 9 9 0 1
Forced labour, slavery, trafficking in persons 4 10 8 3 1 1
Forced family and child separation 1 4 16 4 1 1
Discrimination and stigmatization, denial of resources, opportunities, services 2 4 12 8 0 1
Child, early or forced marriage 1 4 15 6 1 0
Abduction, kidnapping, forced disappearance, arbitrary or unlawful arrest and/or detention 3 3 5 13 2 1

During the second quarter of 2022

Sexual and gender-based violence

  • Afghanistan
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Guatemala
  • Pacific
  • Whole of Syria
  • Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Colombia
  • El Salvador
  • Ethiopia
  • Honduras
  • Iraq
  • Libya
  • Mali
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Nigeria
  • oPt
  • Somalia
  • Ukraine
  • Burkina Faso
  • Niger
  • Sudan
  • Venezuela
  • Yemen

Sexual and gender-based violence including the rape of both girls and boys and sexual harassment of peaceful protestors in Khartoum were reported in Sudan. Honduras reported the largest rate of femicide with 110 women murdered in the first four months of 2022. More than 730 GBV incidents were reported in the regions of Tillabéri and Tahoua (Niger) since the beginning of the year. In the month of April, over 6,200 protection incidents were reported in DRC with the majority including cases of sexual and gender-based violence, abductions and physical assault. In Syria, women and girls continue to be subjected to increased denial of economic resources and education, movement restrictions, exploitation, forced and child marriage, intimate partner and family violence, technology-facilitated violence, and physical, psychological, emotional, sexual, and social violence.  Since May 2021, female-headed households in Gaza remain disproportionately affected by the impact of the military escalation and are in need of assistance to help cover basic needs and sustain their economic autonomy during emergency situations. Around 30% of women and girls faced GBV incidents before or during their displacement in Gao and 27% were raped in IDPs sites in Menaka (Mali). The exclusion of girls in Afghanistan from access to school, to social, economic, and protection activities continue to expose them to further risks.

Psychological/emotional abuse or inflicted distress

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Libya
  • Pacific
  • Ukraine
  • Whole of Syria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Colombia
  • Ethiopia
  • Iraq
  • Mali
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • oPt
  • Sudan
  • Yemen
  • Afghanistan
  • Cameroon
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Somalia
  • Venezuela
  • Burundi
  • Honduras

oPt faces a severe mental health crisis, which has been exacerbated by recent escalation of violence across the West Bank including East Jerusalem in April 2022. The fear for life, loss of loved ones, physical injuries and wide-spread damage and destruction significantly increased the risk of psychological distress and mental disorders. In Yemen, the prolonged conflict and protracted displacement coupled with the insecurity, economic downturn, collapse of State institutions, and declining rule of law have led to widespread psychological distress and mental health effects. A MHPSS Working Group in CAR reported that 94% of people in affected localities are in need of psychosocial support. The protracted decade-long crisis in Syria, with airstrikes, shelling, armed clashes and explosive ordnance incidents continue to cause death and injury, displacement, damage to property, and destruction of civilian infrastructure, causing immense psychological distress.

Impediments or restrictions to freedom of movement, siege and forced displacement

  • Cameroon
  • Ethiopia
  • Ukraine
  • Afghanistan
  • Burkina Faso
  • Central African Republic
  • Colombia
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Libya
  • Mali
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Sudan
  • Venezuela
  • Whole of Syria
  • Chad
  • El Salvador
  • Iraq
  • Pacific
  • Yemen
  • Burundi
  • Somalia

In Colombia, there has been at least 22 mass displacement emergencies in the department of Narino and 11 displacements in the department of Cauca. Intercommunal clashes resulted in the displacement of nearly 200,000 individuals in regions of Sudan: West Darfur, South Kordofan, West Kordofan and North Darfur. There are 1.9 million IDPs in Burkina Faso, over 60% of whom are children. The main causes of displacement in Honduras are restrictions of movement, extortion, sexual violence and land grabbing. Between March and June, around 54,000 new IDPs were registered following fights between armed groups in Menaka. In Myanmar, presence of armed actors, curfews, frequent identity checks severely restrict civilian’s freedom of movement. The total number of new IDPs as of June stands at 704,000. In Syria, restrictions on freedom of movement are reported in 51 percent of assessed communities. From January to April 2022, 80,000 people were newly displaced in CAR. Approximately 4,887 individuals have been displaced in Mozambique after the attack of villages in Ancuabe district.

Attacks on civilians and other unlawful killings, attacks on civilian infrastructures

  • Cameroon
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Myanmar
  • Ukraine
  • Burkina Faso
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Colombia
  • Guatemala
  • Mali
  • Mozambique
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Venezuela
  • Whole of Syria
  • Libya
  • Yemen
  • Afghanistan
  • Burundi
  • Honduras
  • Iraq
  • Pacific

In West Darfur, Sudan, at least 217 individuals were killed with a further 134 individuals sustaining injuries between 21 and 22 April in Kreniek and Ag Geinina.  For the month of May 2022 alone, 110 schools and 138 health centres closed in Burkina Faso due to armed violence. A resurgence of attacks by non-state armed groups against civilian populations in the Sahel has been reported notably killing 79 people in Seytenga (Burkina Faso), as well as mass killings in Moura and Hombori (Mali). At least 1,700 civilian fatalities were recorded in Ethiopia since the beginning of 2022. More than half a dozen beheadings were reported from the Macomia district of Mozambique in May. Attacks on civilians have increased in Nigeria with civilians killed as they are going out to search for firewood or other livelihood opportunities. According to Health Cluster in CAR, 13 attacks on health facilities were reported from January to May 2022. In the second half of 2022, the number of civilian casualties in Yemen have dropped due to the current truce between warring parties.

Abduction, kidnapping, forced disappearance, arbitrary or unlawful arrest and/or detention

  • Libya
  • Ukraine
  • Afghanistan
  • Burkina Faso
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Mali
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Sudan
  • Whole of Syria
  • Central African Republic
  • Colombia
  • Honduras
  • Iraq
  • Venezuela
  • Burundi
  • Guatemala
  • Yemen
  • El Salvador
  • Pacific
  • Somalia

Human rights activists including IDP community leaders were subject to arbitrary arrest and detention in Sudan.  Incidents of abduction and kidnapping were also reported in Khartoum and Jabal Mara areas.  Arbitrary arrests and detention of civilians perceived as affiliated to non-state armed groups is high in Mali. Arbitrary arrests are a critical protection concern in Myanmar—civilians often arrested because of accusations or suspicions of being in contact with opposition armed groups.   Kidnapping has increased especially in Adamawa state of Nigeria.  In the month of April 2022 itself, over 6,200 protection incidents were reported from the eastern Provinces of DRC with the majority of those incidents including abductions and kidnappings. In CAR, with transport infrastructure compromised, women and girls are at a heightened risk of kidnapping. In May, IDPs from the Meluco district in Mozambique reported the kidnapping of several boys by NSAGs.

Theft, extortion, eviction or destruction of personal property

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Afghanistan
  • Burkina Faso
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Libya
  • Mali
  • Myanmar
  • Niger
  • Ukraine
  • Whole of Syria
  • Central African Republic
  • Colombia
  • El Salvador
  • Ethiopia
  • Iraq
  • Nigeria
  • Pacific
  • Sudan
  • Burundi
  • Venezuela
  • Yemen
  • Mozambique
  • Somalia

There has been an increasing risk of mass demolitions and displacement of Bedouin and herding communities in the Jordan Valley, Jerusalem Periphery and South Hebron Hills. Between January and May 2022, 24% of all structures targeted in Area C were seized rather than demolished. Chad reports the theft of cattle and destruction of villages making households vulnerable. Incidents of theft including animals, extortion, eviction, looting and destruction of personal property have increased in South, West and Central Darfur in Sudan. In the Tanganyika province in DR Congo, since April 2022, armed groups committed looting and extortion of villages. Violations of property rights by armed groups were also predominant in the 4 regions of Niger. 61 percent of assessed communities in Syria report HLP concerns, including destruction, informal housing, illegal occupation of private property and lack and loss of reliable HLP documentation. In CAR, 2,698 IDPs are at the risks of forced eviction after the Batangafo administrative authorities’ ultimatum to IDPs to leave the site by December 2022.

Impediments or restrictions to freedom of movement, siege and forced displacement

  • Cameroon
  • Ethiopia
  • Ukraine
  • Afghanistan
  • Burkina Faso
  • Central African Republic
  • Colombia
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Libya
  • Mali
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Sudan
  • Venezuela
  • Whole of Syria
  • Chad
  • El Salvador
  • Iraq
  • Pacific
  • Yemen
  • Burundi
  • Somalia

Most of the population in Chad does not have civil status documents. Lack or loss of civil documentation is reported in 76 percent of assessed communities in Syria and spread across all governorates. IDPs in Ukraine face delays when receiving identity documentation including in obtaining a passport or restoring lost or damaged documents. Inability to provide the requisite identity documentation is resulting in the exclusion of IDPs from registration by the authorities and assistance. As rates of violence rises in Sudan, access to justice remains limited and crime continues to be perpetrated with grave impunity. Ethiopia’s Federal Government continues to prevent, or tightly restrict telecommunication and internet access.

Presence of mines and other explosive ordnance

  • Ukraine
  • Whole of Syria
  • Afghanistan
  • Central African Republic
  • Colombia
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Myanmar
  • Venezuela
  • Yemen
  • Burkina Faso
  • Chad
  • Iraq
  • Libya
  • Mali
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • oPt
  • Cameroon
  • Honduras
  • Sudan
  • Burundi
  • Guatemala
  • Mozambique
  • Pacific
  • Somalia

Explosive devices have reappeared in urban areas of Colombia. From January to May 2022, 26 incidents related to improvised explosive devices were reported in Niger resulting in 51 casualties compared to 18 incidents in the same period in 2021 with 56 victims. Landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERWs) pose a serious threat to people in Myanmar, where the number of casualties now stands at 100 with children representing 37% of casualties from landmine/ERW explosions. Explosive ordnance is encountered in areas affected by conflict in Ethiopia, including in critical infrastructure such as schools and main roads. Mines and explosive devices have been reported in the department of Fouli, in Chad. The monthly average number of civilian ERW casualties in Yemen so far this year has been 46, up 31% from the 2021 average of 35%. Approximately one in three communities in Syria is estimated to be contaminated by explosives. Attacks using explosive weapons in populated urban areas in Ukraine continue to inflict civilian casualties and cause considerable damage to essential infrastructures. Between January to May 2022, 31 incidents resulting in 36 casualties were reported in CAR –75% of which were civilians, with men representing 41% and children 52%.