Protection Risk: Trafficking in Persons, Forced Labour or Slavery-Like Practices

This protection risk refers to forced labour, slavery, slavery-like practices and trafficking in persons. Forced labour refers to situations in which persons are coerced to work under the menace of any penalty, for example through the use of violence or intimidation, or by more subtle means such as manipulated debt, retention of identity papers or threats of denunciation to immigration authorities. Trafficking in persons refers to the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation includes at a minimum the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the removal of organs. Note that in the case of children, trafficking involves only  recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons for the purpose of exploitation and does not have to involve the illicit and abusive means listed before.