Since August 11, 2023, the region of Timbuktu has experienced violent clashes between JNIM fighters, the coordination of AZAWAD movements (CMA) and the Malian armed forces. This resurgence of violence is taking place in the context of the withdrawal of MINUSMA in accordance with resolution 2690 ending its mandate on December 31, 2023 and the issues surrounding the take-over of the latter's camp. Indeed, the locality of Ber, located about 60 km northeast of the city of Timbuktu, is facing an escalation of tensions, particularly because the CMA, which has had a strong presence in the region since 2014, is contesting the recovery of these infrastructures by the Malian Defense and Security Forces. In addition, it was noted that since August the populations of Ber for fear of reprisals, began to move in a preventive way both inside and outside the country for fear of being taken hostage in the clashes that could break out. Finally, it is important to add that beyond these security factors, the Timbuktu region has experienced poor rainfall affecting crops and livestock, shocks related to climate change following the drying up of lakes and ponds, also forcing people to move and thus increasing their vulnerabilities and exposure to protection risks. The combination of all these factors contributes to further weakening civilian populations capacity to cope and largely contributes to forced and preventive displacements.
The protection risks requiring immediate attention during the period covered by this analysis are:
1. Forced separation of children and families.
2. Forced recruitment and association of children into armed forces and groups.
3. Conflict-related gender-based violence and intimate partner violence.
4. Explosive devices threats.
5. Forced evictions of displaced persons.