Protection Risk: Discrimination and Stigmatization, Denial of Resources, Opportunities, Services and/or Humanitarian Access

This protection risk includes acts that deprive or pre-empt people to rightfully access economic resources/assets or livelihood opportunities, education, health or other social services, on the basis of unjustifiable and/or unlawful reasons or policies with the consent or under the acquiescence or negligence of public officials or responsible parties. Discrimination includes acts of making unjustified distinctions between human beings based on categories to which they are perceived to belong (race, gender, age, religion, sexual orientation, as well as other categories). Stigma can include dehumanizing, degrading, discrediting and devaluing people in certain population groups, often based on a feeling of disgust. Stigma and discrimination are closely interrelated, and they reinforce each other. Stigma often lies at the root of discrimination and provides a justification to discrimination as ‘natural’ and necessary, andnecessary and makes systemic discrimination possible. One person can possess different attributes to which stigma are is attached. Denial of equal opportunity, including resources and services refers to any action, conduct or measure resulting in or likely to result in the taking away in any manner of existing opportunities for livelihood, vocation, occupation or employment or any other livelihood rights and entitlements. This is a core type of gender-based violence. Denial of humanitarian access entails blocking the free passage or timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to persons in need, as well as the deliberate attacks against humanitarian workers.